The ageing population in Russia has led to a shift from distributive pay-as-you-go financed pension system into a multi-pillar one. In 2002, individuals were given the opportunity to form and manage their individual pension funds. Since then, reforms have continued. The purpose of this paper is to reveal how the views and attitudes of working-age Russians regarding retirement have changed over a period (2005-2018). Research was done using the survey data «Monitoring of the financial behavior of Russians (2009-2018)» (NRU-HSE), «Monitoring of financial activity of population (2005)» (ZIRCON) and Initiative Study of NAFI (2007). Despite the demographic, economic, and institutional changes that have taken place, individual pension strategies have not changed for the better, fewer Russians are confident in 2018 that they will have enough money for living after retirement, the number of those who expect to receive additional income has reduced, financial retirement strategies have not become common.
The developing culture of mass private automobile ownership in Russia became a prominent platform for post-Soviet citizen-drivers to (re)negotiate their relationship with the state. The convergence of power, infrastructure, and modernity in automobility made salient the old Soviet promise of infrastructural and cultural development, delegitimizing the post-Soviet contraction of the state’s sphere of responsibility. On the other hand, the inherent danger and autonomy of automobile technology, combined with highly spatialized local politics, reveal a number of political mechanisms and imaginaries that make such withdrawals peculiarly legitimate. Finally, through the windshield of a private car in Russia, the state emerges as the ontology and a total social fact. This contradicts the anti-statist, pluralist, and the localizing concepts of the state in contemporary anthropology.
The issues of techniques and the body, corporeality and technology — whether in interaction with each other or treated as separate fields — have preoccupied scholars back to the origins of anthropology as a discipline. But bodies and techniques are less often addressed together. The aim of this issue of ‘Forum’ is to stimulate among anthropologists and cultural historians a discussion about precisely this ‘knowledge gap’, and to foster critiques of the interrelationship of corporeal and technological realities, including such areas as the mechanics of technology and its instrumentalisation of the body. This might include topics such as robotisation and ‘cyborgisation’, the expansion of human capacities with the aid of new technologies, the competition between human intelligence and IT, the technological dimensions of biopolitics and biopower, new cognitive techniques such as neurohacking, and the emergence of transhuman studies.
In this paragraph, the authors focus on analysing all the factors related to the accumulation of human potential and the integration of new knowledge in rural communities on Altai Krai’s Kulunda steppe that are largely responsible for the sustainable socio-economic development of this area. The analysis leads them to conclude that the understanding of the term ‘sustainable development’ in the directives of the krai and municipal administrations should be expanded in order to allow for the implementation of a number of measures. Those aimed at the socio-economic development of the region to ensure a specific quality of life for all generations in rural communities, both contemporary and future, that would involve the full realization of their human potential.
December 19, 2016, witnessed three tragedies that could not go unnoticed by the Russian media: dozens of people died as a result of a surrogate alcohol poisoning in Irkutsk, a Russian ambassador was killed in Turkey, and a terrorist attack took place at the Christmas market in Berlin. In this article, we use the network agenda-setting theory to analyze how these tragedies were covered by different types of mass media. We show that ties between the tragedy and a network of other acute issues are more important than objective circumstances, such as the number of victims or the geography of the event. The context in which the events were examined led to greater attention to the killing of the ambassador and less attention to the surrogate alcohol poisoning. We believe that the state can exercise indirect control over the agenda by creating a network of events that will correctly guide discussions about tragedies.
This book is a long-awaited introductory text covering Russian history, politics, and culture through a distinctively anthropological lens. It is intended for undergraduates with no prior knowledge of the country and focuses on the public and political life of contemporary Russian society. Deliberately short, the text is divided into seven chapters. The chapters are prefaced by a six-page introduction and followed by a glossary, bibliography, and index. Each chapter follows a no-nonsense scheme, beginning with a “brief history” overview of the respective theme, which is then developed further in a general discussion and more detailed description of an “ethnographic close-up.”
This study detects and describes a specific set of possible alternatives to local rural development, as exemplified in Altai Krai’s Kulunda steppe that can be implemented in a number of so-called analytical scenarios that the authors substantiate. The first scenario, which involves the natural deterioration of the settlement milieu of Kulunda steppe communities, has already begun and, in the authors’ opinion, is being aided by the state’s inarticulate agrarian policy and the nature of the agricultural market. However, under certain conditions, the authors concede that it might be displaced by a second scenario, which leads to a transformation of Altai Krai’s Kulunda steppe into an area with high-tech farming and processing enclaves that dominate the backward rural district, which is distinguished by unsustainable, inert and intermittent development that allows for only fragmentary modernization. The authors believe that the third scenario—the overall sustainable socio-economic development of this area based on a policy of ‘manageable contraction’ and ‘diversified development’ would be the most desirable.
This paper is a review of Imagined Futures: Fictional Expectations and Capitalist Dynamics, written by Jens Beckert and published in 2016. Prof. Beckert leads the Max-Plank Institute for the Study of Societies in Cologne. His works are in the fields of new economic sociology, economic anthropology and valuation studies. The last approach largely owes its existence to Beckertian theorizing. Imagined Futures highlights temporal perception in capitalist societies and the role of future expectations in the processes of capitalist dynamics. Beckertian theses also justify the importance of valuation studies and revise the role of economic forecasts. According to his central idea, economic forecasts cannot provide reliable future predictions due to the ontological uncertainty described by economic theory itself. Instead of looking into the future, the main function of forecasts is posited to be the coordination of social actions. The reduction of uncertainty provided by economic forecasts is essential for effective market function and the stability of social dynamics.
This review proposes an interpretation of the theories outlined in the book and seeks to emphasize the importance of the author’s conclusions for valuation studies, new economic sociology and especially for studying the performative side of economic theory. The first part of the paper suggests the deeper historical roots of Imagined Futures. Next, the alternative philosophical frame for fictional expectations is discussed, and a systematization of fictional expectations is proposed. The paper’s second part problematizes capitalistic production and consumption described by Beckert as the foundation of the modern social order. Additionally, an ontological sense of future planning and capitalist dynamics is introduced in the context of symbolic consumption. The paper finishes by describing another aspects of performativity made by models of economic theory.
This article analyses media representations of LGBT social movements, taking the case of Saint Petersburg LGBT pride parades. The analysis is developed through the use of framing theory, which views the media as an arena where interest groups promote their own interpretations of particular issues. Frames juxtapose elements of the text in such a way as to provide the audience with a scheme within which to perceive the message. Social movements are viewed as interest groups that introduce new frames in public debate. Two types of frames can be distinguished: collective action frames and status quo frames. In this study, the usage of two collective action frames (equality frame and victim frame), and two status quo frames (morality frame and propaganda promoting homosexuality frame) were examined. Additionally, the sources of quotes used in news stories were analyzed. The study focuses on articles dedicated to Saint Petersburg LGBT pride marches in the years 2010–2017 in the most popular local Internet websites. The analysis shows that the coverage of LGBT pride marches can be divided into two distinct periods: 2010–2013 and 2014–2017. In the first period, LGBT activists dominated the coverage, quoted about twice as much as government officials. Equality and victim frames were prevalent. In the second period, activists were cited significantly less often, with the propaganda promoting homosexuality frame dominating the discourse. However, contrary to findings of previous studies on social movement representation, across the whole period under consideration, LGBT activists were quoted more often than government representatives. This finding calls for a further exploration of the conditions which allowed for such coverage in the context of political heterosexism and homophobia.
In order that Kulunda can become a ‘learning region’ for agricultural and rural development, where the link between ecology and efficiency should be the leading idea, various possible mechanisms of knowledge transfers related to new technologies for agricultural production have to be explored. As a background, this chapter summarizes key data on the agricultural and forestry sector including data on labour force. Aspects of residents’ living standards, housing conditions, school system, health care and not to underestimate the role of cultural institutions and job opportunities outside agriculture are discussed as having an effect on the willingness of people to stay in the region.
This article analyses the discourse about the opposition politician Alexei Navalny in Russian media. Navalny has been actively engaging with his audience through social media and online platforms; however, some media continue to ignore the politician, practically not covering his activities. The article analyses the intensity and sentiment of the media coverage of Navalny based on data from Medialogia. It is concluded that the media in general do cover the politician’s activities and attempts to deliberately ignore news about him are only made by TV stations. However, news about Navalny is often negative. While blogs offer a more positive outlook on the politician’s activities than do the other types of media that the article considers, the majority of the coverage of Navalny in Russian media is of a critical nature. In addition, an analysis of positive and negative news in various types of media suggests that the way the politician’s activities are covered primarily involves not information about what he did or did not do but rather the various media interpretations of these actions.
Background and aims. Young Russians have been drinking less alcohol, and fewer strong spirits in particular, in recent years. This study aimed to disentangle age, period and birth cohort effects for the first time in Russia to improve our understanding of these trends. Design. Age, period and cohort analysis of annual nationally representative repeated cross-sectional surveys [Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey – Higher School of Economics (RLMS-HSE)] using separate logistic models for each gender. Setting. Russia 1994–2016. Participants. A total of 195234 respondents aged 14 – 85 years. Measurements. Age (14 groups: 14-17 to 76+ years), period (21 years: 1994–2016) and birth cohorts (17 groups: 1920 –24 to 2000–02). Outcome measures were 30-day overall and beverage-specific alcohol use prevalence accounting for vodka, moonshine, beer and wine. Controls were per capita income, education, marital status, ethnicity, residence type and regional climate. Findings. Controlling for age and period effects, the most recent cohorts had lower rates of participation than older cohorts. Findings were valid for females born in 1995–2002 (P= 0.000) and males born in 1990–94 (P= 0.002) and 1995 –2002 (P= 0.000). The period effects were strong in 1994–2003 due to intensive substitution of beer in place of vodka. Period effects were also important in determining a decline of prevalence in 2008–15 due to restrictive alcohol policy. Age effects showed an inverse U-shaped trend in both genders, except for moonshine and wine. Overall, drinking profiles were beverage-specific. Models indicated diverse beverage-specific effects of income, ethnicity, education, marital status and residence on the prevalence of alcohol use. Conclusion. The recent downward trend in alcohol use in Russia appears to be attributable to reduced participation rates among younger cohorts born after 1990.
Work schedule structures individual life and matches biological and social rhythms in various ways. Given the widespread prevalence of nonstandard work schedules (such as working evenings, nights and weekends) in the context of the '24 / 7 economy', the need for research into how these schedules affect worker well-being, including the issues of work-life balance, has never been greater. It is difficult for a person working in evenings, nights or weekends to spend enough time with friends, acquaintances and relatives, actively participate in social events, share family ceremonies and rituals, and keep up the traditions that are important for maintaining social relations. This study is the first attempt to estimate the occurrence and effects of nonstandard work schedules in Russia, using the data of European Social Survey (5th round). About two-thirds of Russian workers work evenings, nights or weekends and this is one of the highest figures among European countries. Regression models reveal that nonstandard work schedules have negative effects on perceived work-life balance. Indeed, it appears that working several times a month or even once a month on weekends in the evening or at night is enough to bring about a deterioration in the work-life balance. Although the results of many studies suggest that the negative effects of non-standard work schedules manifest themselves differently depending on gender and family characteristics, in this study we did not confirm that gender and presence of children moderate the effects of non-standard work schedules on work-life balance. The academic community and government bodies should pay more attention to nonstandard work schedules, which can generate serious social problems. Further research should include a wider variety of indicators of health and subjective well-being, as applied to various categories of Russian workers.
This paper aims to reconstruct relationship between consumers and the state. Consumer culture and politics are recognized as overlapping domains. Analysis is based on historical account of sovient consumer culture and data from representative survey in Moscow collected in 2017. We also in historical perspective. Russian state was closely intertwined with consumer affairs. Institutionalization of consumers’ dissatisfaction was an important line of political work during soviet period and postsocialist time. Official consumer complaints reflected the paternal model of dependence of the citizens on the authorities, which was an organic part of the idea of Soviet societal structure. Power asymmetry was formed in soviet consumer culture: lack of competition between state-owned retailers, dependence upon the retailer often left consumers defenseless. Survey results show that consumers still acknowledge the possibility of deceit from market players. Assessment of government’s actions in sphere of consumption is not so different from negative evaluations of stores and producers. Idea that market agents put their interests above consumer interests is a social norm, predictable instability. Muscovites consumer behavior follows what we call “the culture of suspicion”. We can assert that culture of suspicion is a structural constraint, forging consumers’ identity. Accounting for “fairness” of the purchase, consumers expect “righteous” market exchange where each party seeks benevolent and equal relations. By doing so, consumers try to socialize market and to infuse it with moral meaning. Consumers do not separate economic sphere from current social and political reality. Consumers who feeling unprotected and vulnerable before the market system more than others question government efforts to defend their rights. Anticipation of deceit and hazards from market allows to question state’s attempts to restore market justice and to seek the alternative ways of resolving the conflict.
Many researchers highlighted the financial arguments between spouses as the key predictor of family disruption and divorce. Moreover, these arguments are defined as the most difficult and lasting for partners. The topic of money in general is considered to be one of the last taboos in society since it hides behind itself questions of power. However, the question of what are the determinants of the financial disagreements emergence remains as a blank spot in a vast body of research devoted to marital conflicts and financial management. This study is an attempt to fill this gap and answer questions about what may lead to their occurrence. Literature review showed that the grounds for power construction in a household affect the occurrence of a financial conflict. One more crucial aspect is the division of labor between partners, which, according to a number of studies, is a key factor of the spouses’ marital dissatisfaction (especially for women) and, as a result, of the emergence of a large number of conflicts. Thus at the theoretical level, it was suggested that there are 5 aspects influencing financial disagreements: financial management in the family, the distribution of power and household responsibilities, the contribution of the spouses to the family budget, their employment and the financial difficulties in the family.
The empirical study was based on the Survey of Consumer Finance data of the 2013 Russian wave (the sample included 2480 families) and three methods of analysis (classification trees, logistic regression and log-linear analysis). The data shows that the main determinants of frequent disagreements about money in families are gendered: in order to decrease financial arguments frequency husband has to be thrifty and have traditionalist attitudes. Women in turn contribute to financial disagreements decrease if they have the same level of satisfaction with making financial decisions in comparison with a man. The formal indicators of family life such as possession of resources and income ratio seem to have no influence on family conflicts about money.
This article provides the first systematic analysis of the Russian media coverage of Trump’s activities during the electoral campaign and within first seven months of his presidential term. We conduct a quantitative analysis of the publications about Donald Trump in 500 Russian magazines and 250 largest federal newspapers. The database “Medialogy” served as a source of data for sentiment analysis of news reports about the American president. On its basis, the conclusion is drawn that the image of Trump was not unambiguously positive, as some foreign studies have claimed. Based on the theory of the network agenda setting we analyzed the context in which Donald Trump was mentioned one month before the election, a month after the elections and in June 2017, just before his meeting with Vladimir Putin. Based on the analysis of network agendas in the Russian federal press, it can be concluded that Trump was portrayed by the Russian media not as Russia’s favorite candidate for president, but as Hillary Clinton’s opponent and a critic of U.S. recent policies. In this context, its likely loss would allow the Russian media to strengthen the negative impression of Russians from U.S. elections. However, after the election results were announced, the Russian media changed tactics and began to write about Trump as a friend of Russia, since there was hope that the new president would lift political and economic sanctions. Trump’s policy has not lived up to the expectations of Russians and since the beginning of 2017 publications about him were mostly negative. Finally, Trump’s positive image collapsed after the start of U.S. military operations in Syria and the imposition of new sanctions against Russia.
Czarniawska’s book may seem to be quite a challenge for several reasons: the author's trademark “crossing genre boundaries” requires a reader to pay attention and stay confident; the outward simplicity of narrating organizational change stands on sophisticated philosophical, sociological, and philological grounds; and the language is eclectic but brilliantly puts together new empirically grounded and older, well-known theoretical concepts. Czarniawska tells a story of the Swedish public sector’s reorganization with the accuracy of an academic and the eloquence of a narrator—institutions become apparent in their activities, as they are based on action, which is depicted by the coined term action nets. In a sense, the reader should be attentive and “follow the words”. Though imagination is also a precondition, as the light but solid and convincing narrative constructions are open to further “translation” (in a hermeneutic and actor-network sense).
Narrative knowledge and its metaphors make it much more productive for work with essential organizational paradoxes. Czarniawska points out that a narrative approach can help new institutionalism reflect on its own limitations and better understand institutional building. With a focus on verbal and written communication as well as employees’ stories, we can trace how institutionalized thought structures, which are responsible for the repertoire of possible actions and shared perceptions among organization participants, are formed.
The book is well written and pleasant for thoughtful reading in both its theoretical and empirical parts. The stories and serials of the Swedish public sector raise important questions of company-ization, technologyization, and rethinking organizational identity. “Narrating the Organization” can also offer some interesting methodological approaches and explanations for why and how stories “work” due to the modern trend of storytelling. The author openly invites her audience into a dialogue and joint-narrative creativity; the only task of the reader is merely to open the book.