This study investigates work schedules in online labour markets, operating in 24/7 mode across spatial borders and time zones. Focusing on largely hidden and invisible work of freelancers such as searching for jobs and communicating with clients, the study documents how platforms put pressures and constraints on freelancers’ time through the mechanism of task allocation. We use data on 241,582 timestamped messages posted by 29,759 unique users in 4082 contests on a leading Russian-language freelance platform to reveal how freelancers’ efforts to get a job make them work nonstandard hours, including evenings, nights and weekends. Freelancers have to be responsive and adapt their schedules to clients’ needs. Freelancers who live in time zones which differ from their clients are particularly disadvantaged, working a greater proportion of nonstandard hours. The findings emerging from the study contribute to current debates on the gig economy and a new time-work discipline.
Introduction and Aims: Sales and survey data have shown a decline in alcohol consumption in Russia since 2007. This study examines whether this decline is consistent across lighter and heavier drinkers in line with the theory of the collectivity of drinking cultures. Design and Methods: Data was collected through annual nationally representative surveys conducted between 2006 and 2018 of 33,109 individuals aged 18–85. We estimated generalized linear regression with Gamma distribution and used log alcohol volume consumed during the previous 30 days as the dependent variable for five percentile groups: heavy drinkers (95th), near heavy drinkers (90th), moderate drinkers (80th), light drinkers (60th for men and 70th for women) and non-drinkers. Dummy variables for years, percentile groups and their interactions were used as independent variables. The controls were age, education, income, body weight, marital status, household demographic structure, residence, ethnicity and regional climate. Results: Reductions in alcohol consumption were observed in all percentiles, but the scale of change was proportionally smaller among heavier drinkers than among lighter drinkers. However, consumption fell by a smaller amount among lighter drinkers than among heavier drinkers. Results of the regression analysis fit with the descriptive statistics. Interactions between the time period and the percentile groups were significant after 2010. Trends were similar for both genders. Discussion and Conclusions: Downward trends across percentiles were in the same direction but the magnitude of change varied. Obtained evidence fails to support a polarization and points towards soft collectivity hypothesis in the reduction in drinking in Russia.
This paper traces the development of the online labour market in Russia and across the wider post-Soviet space. The study utilizes the unique data of four online surveys conducted in 2009, 2011, 2014 and 2019 on the leading general-purpose platform for creative and knowledge-based work, operating in the Russian language. The results shed light on the key trends, such as spatial decentralization, occupational diversification, feminization, maturing, rising education and educational mismatch, strengthening freelance careers, platformization and legalization. The paper discusses the reasons and potential policy implications of these findings for the future development of online platform work in Russia.
В начале XXI века возникла и стала активно развиваться занятость населения через онлайн-платформы. Это стало отличительной чертой новой цифровой экономики. В настоящей работе прослеживается развитие платформенной занятости фрилансеров в Российской Федерации и на постсоветском пространстве в целом. В исследовании используются уникальные данные четырех онлайн-опросов, проведенных авторами в 2009, 2011, 2014 и 2019 годах на ведущей русскоязычной бирже удалённой работы для творческого и интеллектуального труда FL.ru. Общая методология, используемая для сбора и анализа данных каждого обследования, даёт возможность пролить свет на динамику ключевых показателей за десятилетний период. В исследовании рассматриваются социально-демографические характеристики фрилансеров, их карьерные траектории, мотивация, условия работы и удовлетворённость ею, а также проблемы, с которыми фрилансеры сталкиваются в своих отношениях с клиентами. В целом результаты указывают на возросшее значение платформ, распространение новой модели работы среди более широких слоев населения и распространённость неформальных отношений, которые могут препятствовать будущему развитию онлайн-рынка труда. Отсутствие основных трудовых прав, коллективного представительства и социальной защиты фрилансеров также вызывает серьёзную озабоченность.
This book explores the contradictory development of gender roles in Central and Eastern Europe including Russia. In light of the social changes that followed the collapse of communism and the rise of new conservatism in Eastern Europe, it studies new forms of gender relationships and reassesses the status quo of female empowerment. Moreover, leading scholars in gender studies discuss how right-wing populism and conservative movements have affected sociopolitical discourses and concepts related to gender roles, rights, and attitudes, and how Western feminism in the 1990s may have contributed to this conservative turn.
Mainly focusing on power constellations and gender, the book is divided into four parts: the first explores the history of and recent trends in feminist movements in Eastern Europe, while the second highlights the dynamics and conflicts that gained momentum after neoconservative parties gained political power in post-socialist countries. In turn, the third part discusses new empowerment strategies and changes in gender relationships. The final part illustrates the identities, roles, and concepts of masculinity created in the sociocultural and political context of Eastern Europe.
Work through online labour platforms, which match freelancers and clients located anywhere, gained prominence in Russia and Ukraine over the past decade. Using survey data of online freelancers in Russia and Ukraine, this chapter inquiries into gender specifics of online work. It shows that some important structural gender differences in online work exist in both countries. These differences are primarily manifested by gender segregation into different sectors of activity. These structural gender differences, along with gender differences in online tenure, working hours, and family responsibilities, translate into persisting gender differences in earnings in both countries. Despite this, women seem to be happier with online work than men (in Russia), or at least as happy as men (in Ukraine). The chapter discusses the reasons and potential policy implications of these findings.
Earning has been traditionally prescribed to male identity, while housekeeping management to the female. The opening of the labor market for women partly weakened gender inequality and the connection between gender and economic performance. However, that decision only opened a “male” economic role for all and kept the “female”-governing household expenditures underestimated. Based on the data of 37 in-depth interviews with middle-class housewives from Moscow, Russia, carried out between 2014-2019 using grounded theory methodology, the chapter reconstructs two lines of argumentation used by women to justify that management of household expenditures can be chosen as a main economic activity without the shame of failing modern gender standards. The first one is denoted as a “consumptive thrift” or “frugal approach.” It explains expenditures of a household as a form of saving and a way to obtain control over the family’s budget and needs. This approach uses economic rationality to suppress impulsive decisions and emphasize the similarity with actions of earning. The second logic is described as “consumption as social reproduction” or “abundant approach.” It points to the dissimilarity between female-driven spending to male earning. In this view, household expenditures make the family a domain of recovery, satisfaction, and relational work that is impossible without the satisfaction of desires.
The advent of information and communication technologies has fueled the digital freelance economy with millions of independent contractors (freelancers) from all over the world, working for distant clients through online labour platforms. This chapter observes how the Russian language and specific socio-economic factors facilitate a distinct online labour market, that operates across the vast territory of the former Soviet Union and beyond. The data from a leading Russian-language online labour platform shed light on the complex geography of the digital freelance economy in Russia, and some important trends over an almost fifteen-year period. The study contributes to the emerging literature on the geography of the digital labour in the globalizing world.
Strong motivation to selfcare is assumed by design of contemporary healthcare policy. However, both western and Russian studies show motivational deficit and inattention to prevention care among population. Actual paper examines the problem of motivation as a relational choice. Opposing to the view on motivation as a part of individual will, we consider motivation as a choice between competing requirements to selfcare among multiple social fields. We collected 27 in-depth interviews with Russians from large cities and analyzed them in abductive logic. In the analysis we focused on health practices performed in the fields of family and career. The results demonstrate that individuals succeed in selfcare when the care of health appears essential for execution of important social roles.
The study aims to identify changes in the assessments of the future pension payments among Russians who have not yet retired in 2005—2020, as well as their perceptions of the ways to ensure an acceptable standard of living after retirement. The authors regard dynamics of the indicators in Russian population as a whole and across different socio-demographic groups. The study uses the data on the retirement strategies of Russians collected during the annual Monitoring of the Financial Behavior of the Russian Population (2009—2020) of the HSE University, and the data of the Monitoring of Financial Activity of the Population for 2005 (ZIRCON Research Group) and 2007 (NAFI Research Centre). The authors conclude that despite the demographic, economic, and institutional changes, individual pension strategies have not changed for the better. Fewer Russians believe that pension payments will be of sufficient amount for them to live, and the number of those who expect to receive additional retirement income declines. Financial strategies for retirement savings, although increased in coverage, have not yet become common.
In recent years, Silicon Valley startups have become some of the most successful corporations in the world. They advance the abandonment of bureaucratic control of employees, for example, they do not keep track of what time employees come to work or what they are wearing, and instead delegate decision-making rights to employees and are attentive to their opinions. But what happens behind the closed doors of those companies promoting such openness and the overthrow of the hierar- chy and bureaucratic rules? How and by whom are they controlled? The book by Catherine J. Turco (2016) shows how corporate communica- tion, culture, and control actually work in a company run by millennials reared on social media. During her ethnographic research, Turco describes how a new organizational form she calls a “conversational firm” has arisen and succeeded in solving business problems due to cross-hierarchical communication. One of Turko’s main findings is that subverting the hierarchical control of communication does not mean the hierarchical structure of decision making must fall as well. Thus, employees may prefer some bureaucratic practices and insist on them.
Alcohol is an important part of the culture of many people, and the patterns of its consumption differ according to the types of drinks people drink, in what circumstances they drink, what kind of meaning drinking offers them, etc. In this article, we decided to classify publications on differences in drinking patterns based on a dominant idea. We highlight the criteria for identifying such patterns: quantitative (depending on the volume and frequency of consumption) and qualitative (depending on the chosen drinks, circumstances, and motives for use). The quantitative criteria make it possible to identify frequently used patterns, such as episodic alcohol consumption in large quantities, binge drinking, sporadic drinking, and light and heavy drinking. Within the framework of the qualitative criteria, Northern, Southern, and Central European types are often distinguished. The emphasis on consumption motives reveals four patterns: reinforcement, coping, conformity, and community. However, researchers tend to understand what explains the differences in consumption patterns. Therefore, in the second part of the article, we turn to the systematization of such explanations based on cultural-anthropological, historical, and structural approaches. In the last part of our article, we show that the approaches we have identified allow us to explain the features of alcohol consumption patterns in Russia and their changes over the past several decades. It can be concluded that the most productive way of analyzing alcohol consumption is the complex application of the approaches we have considered—the identification of patterns based on various criteria and the explanation of their choice by different highlighted approaches.
Significance. The sociostructural perspective of the group differences analysis in the addiction study traditionally involves taking into account age, gender, ethnicity, and profession. At the same time, with the development of the society, the generational factor makes an increasingly significant contribution to the intergroup differences. Despite these trends, the generational features of refusing alcohol still remain unexplored.
The purpose of the research is to identify generational features of refusing alcohol by addicted people-representatives of different generations and to typologize the relevant practices and strategies.
Material and methods. The research is of sociological nature representing a qualitative analysis of autobiographical stories of representatives of different generations of alcohol addicts published in the Russian newspapers and magazines (N = 134). The sample is criterial: sociological method of case selection corresponding to the specified criteria.
Results. Generational features of alcohol refusal are expressed in practices and strategies specific to each generation. The practices of alcohol refusals reflecting intergenerational differences are differentiated according to the criteria, depending on stage of moving to sobriety: 1) The stage of choosing in favor of sobriety – the criterion of independence, i.e., practices of adaptation, submission, and free choice; 2) The stage of overcoming addiction – resistance to circumstances, i.e., practices of conscientiousness, firmness of intentions, assertiveness, and isolation; 3) Stage of possible disruption – flexibility, i.e., practices of devotion, balance, and changeability.
The sequence of practices unique for each stage of abstaining from alcohol by addicted people of different generations is expressed in the following strategies: 1) obedience: «submission-conscientiousness-devotion» (mobilization, thaw, stagnation); 2) discretion: «submission-firmness of intentions-balance» (reform); 3) self-sufficiency: «free choice-isolation-changeability» (millennials).
Conclusion. Representatives of the millennial generation are characterized by turning-point practices of alcohol refusal with practically no intersection of the selected criteria with previous generations. Practices overlap partially between the reform generation and the three generations that preceded it. Thus, representatives of the millennial generation differ most significantly from their predecessors in the practices and strategies of refusing alcohol.
This study examines the ethics of political consultants in Russia using the materials of 73 interviews with election campaigners (political consultants, chiefs of staff, field workers, lawyers, etc.). The study suggests that it is impossible to speak of Russian political consultants as a single community sharing common values. This professional group is heterogeneous and includes people with different perceptions of norms and ethical boundaries. Based on the analysis of the interviews, a classification of political consultants’ professional taboos was developed: universal human morality, ideological orientation, professional orientation, procedural taboos, and legal boundaries. Interestingly, some of the informants used the rhetoric of justification when talking about ethical restrictions. The existence of certain standards of behavior was justified by the fact that the informant was somehow different from the “correct” political consultants (professional biography, belief system, etc.). The absence of ethical boundaries in several cases could be interpreted as a norm and a sign of professionalism, as opposed to as an anomaly.